...the results of 393 studies were summarized. Of these, 83 showed differences in learning in favor of television, 255 reported no significant differences, and 55 favored direct classroom teaching... There can no longer be any doubt that students learn efficiently from instruction television. The fact has been demonstrated now in hundreds of schools, by thousands of students, in every part of the United States and in several other countries. Instruction Television is at least as effective as ordinary classroom instruction, when the results are measured by the usual final examinations or by standardized tests...employing the usual tests that schools use...we can say with considerable confidence that in 65 percent of a very large number of comparisons between televised and classroom teaching, there is no significant difference. In 21 percent, students learned significantly more, in 14 percent, they learned significantly less, from television.
Schramm, W. (1965). What We Know about Learning From Instructional Television.
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