Never Let it Rest Lessons about Student Success from High-Performing Colleges and Universities

George Kuh
Jillian Kinzie
John H. Schuh
Elizabeth J. Whitt


There is increasing pressure for Higher Education institutions to undergo transformation, with education being seen as needing to adapt in ways that meet the conceptual needs of our time. Reflecting this is the rise of the flipped or inverted classroom. The purpose of this scoping review was to provide a comprehensive overview of relevant research regarding the emergence of the flipped classroom and the links to pedagogy and educational outcomes, identifying any gaps in the literature which could inform future design and evaluation. The scoping review is underpinned by the five-stage framework Arksey and O'Malley. The results indicate that there is much indirect evidence emerging of improved academic performance and student and staff satisfaction with the flipped approach but a paucity of conclusive evidence that it contributes to building lifelong learning and other 21st Century skills in under-graduate education and post-graduate education.


Higher education, Flipped classroom, Scoping review, Educational outcomes, Face to face teaching Engagement


Uses Arskey and O'Flahertys five stage process which includes: The five stages of Arksey and O'Malley's framework, (1) identifying the initial research questions, (2) identifying relevant studies, (3) study selection, (4) charting the data, and (5) collating, summarizing and reporting the results were utilized in this review of the flipped classroom literature Article is more of a lit review than an experiential study.

APA Citation

Kuh, G. D., Kinzie, J., Schuh, J. H., & Whitt, E. J. (2005). Never let it rest lessons about student success from high-performing colleges and universities. Change: The Magazine of Higher Learning37(4), 44-51.

About the Study

Links to Article
Mode Flipped
Publication Type Journal Article
In Publication Change: The Magazine of Higher Learning
Type of Research
Research Design
Intervention/Areas of Study
Level of Analysis
Specific Populations Examined
Specific Institutional Characteristics of Interest
Specific Course or Program Characteristics
Outcome Variables of Interest
Student Sample Size
Citing Articles,3&hl=en