The Experience of Three Flipped Classrooms in an Urban University: An exploration of design principles

Min Kyu Kim
So Mi Kim
Otto Khera
Joan Getman


As a response to the call for technology enhanced, student-centered learning environments, the flipped classroom approach has drawn much attention from both the research and practice communities. Despite over fifteen years of flipped classroom implementation, design principles have been minimally elaborated upon in relation to diverse disciplinary contexts. Focusing on this gap, we engaged in a mixed methods study that examined three instances of the flipped classroom across unique disciplines and to extract specific design principles. Three instructors and 115 students enrolled in three separate classes in fall 2012 participated in the study. Building upon the Revised Community of Inquiry Framework, we developed a flipped classroom design framework and identified nine design principles.


Flipped classroom, Inverted classroom, Technology-enhanced learning, Blended learning, Student-centered learning, Mixed methods research


This study deploys the theory-driven analytic framework−Revised Community of Inquiry (RCOI) (Garrison, Anderson, & Archer, 2000, Shea & Bidjerano, 2010, Shea et al., 2012, Swan et al., 2012) – by first investigating the impact of the flipped classroom approach on three participating classrooms as a means of eliciting a model that is able to guide the elaboration of design principles. This study aimed to investigate participants’ perceived values of the flipped
classrooms with respect to the RCOI components and to elaborate a design framework from
which design principles for the flipped classrooms could be specified. Mixed-Methods study, Overall students were satisfied with the flipped classroom activities, with many agreeing
that the class time interaction was helpful to their understanding of course concepts. Students
perceived that the flipped classroom activities were more student-oriented than traditional class
activities (mean=3.7 out of 4)

About the Study

Links to Article
Mode Flipped
Publication Type Journal Article
In Publication
Type of Research
Research Design
Intervention/Areas of Study
Level of Analysis
Specific Populations Examined
Specific Institutional Characteristics of Interest
Specific Course or Program Characteristics
Outcome Variables of Interest
Student Sample Size
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