Seven principles that can help to improve undergraduate education are identified. Based on research on college teaching and learning, good practice in undergraduate education: (1) encourages contacts between students and faculty; (2) develops reciprocity and cooperation among students; (3) uses active learning techniques; (4) gives prompt feedback; (5) emphasizes time on task; (6) communicates high expectations; and (7) respects diverse talents and ways of learning. Examples of approaches that have been used in different kinds of college in the last few years are described. In addition, the implications of these principles for the way states fund and govern higher education and for the way institutions are run are briefly discussed. Examples of good approaches include: freshman seminars on important topics taught by senior faculty; learning groups of five to seven students who meet regularly during class to solve problems set by the instructor; active learning using structured exercises, discussions, team projects, and peer critiques, as well as internships and independent study; and mastery learning, contract learning, and computer-assisted instruction approaches, which required adequate time on learning
College Instruction, Educational Principles, Expectation, Feedback, Higher Education, Instructional Improvement, Learning Activities, Peer Relationship, Student Participation, Teacher Student Relationship, Time on Task, Undergraduate Study
The authors identify seven principles of good teaching which are:
1. Encourages contacts between students
2. Develops reciprocity and cooperation
3. Uses active learning techniques.
4. Gives prompt feedback
5. Emphasizes time on task
6. Communicates high expectations.
7. Respects diverse talents and ways of
These principles are still effective in today's educational environment whether the teaching happens online or in-person.
Chickering, A. W., & Gamson, Z. F. (1987). Seven principles for good practice in undergraduate education. AAHE bulletin, 3, 7.
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|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|In Publication||American Association of Higher Education|
|Type of Research|
|Research Design||Not applicable|
|Intervention/Areas of Study||Course design|
|Level of Analysis||Instructor-level|
|Specific Populations Examined|
|Specific Institutional Characteristics of Interest|
|Specific Course or Program Characteristics|
|Outcome Variables of Interest||Instructional effectiveness|
|Student Sample Size|