Different by Design: An examination of student outcomes among participants in three types of living-learning programs

Karen Kurotsuchi Inkelas
Jennifer L. Weisman


This study examines college environments and outcomes among students in three different types of living-learning programs compared with a control sample at one university. Results reveal that living-learning students exhibit higher levels of engagement in college activities with stronger academic outcomes, and experiences that varied by program type.



Because of these goals (shared learning between both students and faculty and connected learning where courses are offered in some type of theme or subject), there were four basic models of learning communities: linked or clustered courses, freshman interest groups (FIGs), coordinated studies, and residence-based programs.

APA Citation

Inkelas, K. K., & Weisman, J. L. (2003). Different by design: An examination of student outcomes among participants in three types of living-learning programs. Journal of College Student Development, 44(3), 335-368.

About the Study

Links to Article https://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&as_sdt=0%2C50&q=Inkelas%2C+K.+K.%2C+%26+Weisman%2C+J.+L.+%282003%29.+Different+by+design%3A+An+examination+of+student+outcomes+among+participants+in+three+types+of+living-learning+programs.+Journal+of+College+Student+Development%2C+44%283%29%2C+335-368.&btnG=
Publication Type Journal Article
In Publication Journal of College Student Development
Type of Research Quantitative
Research Design Survey research (qualitative or quantitative)
Intervention/Areas of Study Engagement, Learning community, Student motivation, Student support, Student-student interactions
Level of Analysis Student-level
Specific Populations Examined First-year students, Undergraduates
Peer-Reviewed Yes
Specific Institutional Characteristics of Interest Other
Specific Course or Program Characteristics
Outcome Variables of Interest Academic achievement or performance, including assessment scores and course grades, Learning effectiveness, Retention
Student Sample Size 0-99
Citing Articles https://scholar.google.com/scholar?cites=102608155733634703&as_sdt=5,50&sciodt=0,50&hl=en